Periodontitis: early detection by periodontal screening index (PSI)

Periodontitis is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Over 80 percent of the population suffer from gingivitis, according to the results of the Third German Oral Health Study. One in three adults shows signs of moderate severity, and one in seven shows signs of severe periodontitis. But this dramatic situation does not have to be, because today the dentist has access to state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic methods. With early diagnosis and early therapy, gingivitis and periodontitis can be treated successfully. However, due to inadequate diagnostics, many periodontal diseases remained undetected in their early stages. With regular check-up by the dentist, if necessary, the dentist can take appropriate measures at an early stage, such as: B. a quick test to control the periodontal pockets. The test works without effort and is completely painless. With the help of a so-called rapid test probe ("screening") the periodontal pockets are measured. It depends on every millimeter.

Periodontal Screening Index

A Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) is a cost-effective, relatively quickly performed procedure for the early detection of periodontitis and does not require much equipment. The examination will be carried out with a special periodontal probe (WHO probe), which will easily detect the bleeding tendency of the gingiva and roughness of the subgingival tooth surfaces, as well as the depth of periodontal pockets.

The dentist uses the probe to check the depth of the gum pockets. These are the invisible spaces between the gums and the teeth. "Although images of the use of the probes appear a bit uncomfortable at first glance, the test is painless even with an inflammation, " comments proDente expert Dr. med. Dietmar Oesterreich the investigation. At the same time existing bleeding is registered and the presence of tartar and overhanging fillings and crowns are assessed by the dentist. Likewise, existing looseness, exposed tooth necks and root gaps are recorded.

Examination and treatment

For examination, the dentition is divided into sextants, in which the findings are collected and assigned to five different codes. The result of this examination is the exact classification of the patient's dental health. With the help of an index five degrees of severity (from 0-4) are distinguished. For each area only the highest value is noted, explained Wolfgang Bengel the procedure. At code 0, the gingiva and periodontium are healthy. Codes 1 and 2 indicate gingivitis, while codes 3 and 4 indicate moderate or severe periodontitis.

Based on the results, the dentist will, if necessary, carry out a more extensive, comprehensive periodontal examination and initiate appropriate therapeutic measures.

severitytreatment measures
Grade 0Gums and periodontal are healthy, no further therapy is needed.
Grade IThe gums are inflamed. There should be a thorough cleaning of the teeth. In addition, the patient should be informed exactly about the domestic dental care.
Grade IIThe gums are inflamed and there are tartar or overhanging fillings and crowns. After professional teeth cleaning and information about better oral hygiene fillings and crowns are reworked or renewed.
Grade IIIThere is a slight periodontitis. In addition, the above findings may also be present. In addition to the treatment measures listed under I and II, a systematic periodontitis therapy should be performed.
Grade IVThere is severe periodontitis. In addition, the above findings may also be present. In addition to the measures listed under I and II, a systematic periodontitis therapy should be included. U. urgently carried out with other surgical procedures.

Genes are also responsible

In some families, periodontal disease is more common. Anyone who immediately thinks of occurring infections in people who are in close contact with each other is not always right. Even for people who put a lot of emphasis on their oral hygiene and yet suffers from periodontal disease, the research tapped for a long time in the dark. Although poor oral hygiene promotes the development of paradontitis, it can not be justified by it alone.

High risk for one third of the population

In the meantime, science has more answers to these questions: certain patients are genetically at higher risk of developing periodontitis. There is now a simple new test that can clarify the potential risk of periodontitis. This is simply done with a cotton swab over the oral mucosa, the result is evaluated in a laboratory.

If an increased production of interleukin-1 is detected, there is a greater tendency to inflammation. Finally, threatened at the relevant site bone loss. In any case, with regular prophylactic care, a corresponding improvement of the situation is possible. A very high risk factor - smoking - should be avoided by those concerned.

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